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HOME > Monitoring and Data > Oceanic & Atmospheric Data > Northern Hemisphere Teleconnection Patterns > References

Selected References

Table Archive of Indices Dating Back to 1950

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Barnston, A. G., and R. E. Livezey, 1987: Classification, seasonality and persistence of low-frequency atmospheric circulation patterns. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 1083-1126.

Barnston, A. G., R. E. Livezey, and M. S. Halpert 1991: Modulation of Southern Oscillation-Northern Hemisphere mid-winter climate relationships by the QBO. J. Climate, 4, 203-217.

Bell, G. D., and A. N. Basist, 1994: Seasonal Climate Summary: The global climate of December 1992-January 1993: Mature ENSO conditions continue in the tropical Pacific, California drought abates. J. Climate, 7, 1581-1605.

Bell, G. D., and M. S. Halpert, 1995: Atlas of intraseasonal and interannual variability, 1986-1993. NOAA Atlas No. 12. Climate Prediction Center, NOAA/NWS/NMC, Washington D.C. Request copy via e-mail from Gerald Bell at

Bell, G. D., and J. E. Janowiak, 1995: Atmospheric circulation associated with the Midwest floods of 1993. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 5, 681-695.

Chagnon, S. A., 1996: The Great Midwest Flood of 1993, Westview Press, 321 pp.

Halpert, M. S. and G. D. Bell, 1997: Climate Assessment for 1996. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,78, S1-S49.

Halpert, M. S., G. D. Bell, V. E. Kousky, and C. F. Ropelewski, 1996: Climate Assessment for 1995. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, S1-S44.

Hurrell, J. W., 1995: Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation: Regional temperatures and precipitation. Science, 269, 676-679.

Mo, K. C., and R. E. Livezey, 1986: Tropical-extratropical geopotential height teleconnections during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 114, 2488-2515.

Wallace, J. M., and D. S. Gutzler, 1981: Teleconnections in the geopotential height field during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 784-812.

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