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figure e7

FIGURE E7. Standardized monthly Northern Hemisphere teleconnection indices. The teleconnection patterns are calculated from a Rotated Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) applied to monthly standardized 500-hPa height anomalies during January 1950 – December 2000. To obtain these patterns, ten leading un-rotated modes are first calculated for each calendar month by using the monthly height anomaly fields for the three-month period centered on that month: [i.e., The July modes are calculated from the June, July, and August standardized monthly anomalies]. A Varimax spatial rotation of the ten leading un-rotated modes for each calendar month results in 120 rotated modes (12 months x 10 modes per month) that yield ten primary teleconnection patterns.The teleconnection indices are calculated by first projecting the standardized monthly anomalies onto the teleconnection patterns corresponding to that month (eight or nine teleconnection patterns are seen in each calendar month). The indices are then solved for simultaneously using a Least-Squares approach. In this approach, the indices are the solution to the Least-Squares system of equations which explains the maximum spatial structure of the observed height anomaly field during the month. The indices are then standardized for each pattern and calendar month independently. No index value exists when the teleconnection pattern does not appear as one of the ten leading rotated EOF’s valid for that month.

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