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figure f12

FIGURE F12. Time series of predicted sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) for the Niño 4, Niño 3.4, Niño 3, and Niño 1+2 indices in °C and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) in standardized deviations based on the ENSO-CLIPER statistical model (Knaff and Landsea 1997, Wea. Forecasting, 12, 633-652). The observed three-month average values are shown as a thick line. Three-month average forecast values are the thick line with horizontal bars, which indicate the adjusted RMSE. Anomalies are departures from the 1971–2000 base period for the SSTs and for the 1951–80 base period for the SOI.

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