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Table of Contents


1. Introduction

2. Climate and global change issues

a. Surface temperature

b. Tropospheric/stratospheric temperatures

1) Troposphere

2) Stratosphere

c. Trace gases

1) Ozone

2) Carbon dioxide

d. Northern Hemisphere snow cover

3. Atmospheric and oceanic circulation

a. Very strong 1997-98 Pacific warm episode (El Niņo)

1) Overview

2) Evolution of the 1997 El Niņo

3) Equatorial Walker Circulation

4) South Pacific jet stream during July-September 1997

b. The tropical Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO)

4. Regional climate highlights

a. North America

1) Flooding of the Red River Valley and Tributaries during April 1997

2) The 1997 North Atlantic and eastern North Pacific hurricane season

b. Africa

1) October-December 1997: Equatorial East Africa rainy season

2) October 1996-April 1997: Southern Africa rainy season

3) June-September 1997: Western Africa rainy season

c. Asia

1) Indian summer monsoon

2) Southeastern Asia

d. Europe: Cold winter, wet summer

e. South America

1) Brazil Winter and Spring Highlights

2) Winter Precipitation in central Chile

3) Northwestern Peru warmth

f. Indonesia/New Guinea

g. Australia

5. Seasonal summaries

Appendix: Contributors