Aceituno, P., 1988: On the functioning of the Southern Oscillation in the South American sector. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116, 505-525.
Barnston, A. G., R. E. Livezey, and M. S. Halpert, 1991: Modulation of Southern Oscillation-Northern Hemisphere mid-winter climate relationships by the QBO. J. Climate, 4, 203-217.
Bell, G. D. and D. Keyser, 1993: Shear curvature vorticity and potential-vorticity interchanges: Interpretation and application to a cutoff cyclone event. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121, 76-102.
Bell, G. D. and V. E. Kousky, 1995: Diagnosing the midlatitude atmospheric response to ENSO. Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Climate Diagnostics Workshop, 9-12.
Bell, G. D. and M. S. Halpert, 1998: Climate assessment for 1997. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79, S1-S50.
Bell, G. D. and M. Chelliah, 1999: The African easterly jet and its link to Atlantic basin tropical cyclone activity and the global monsoon system. Proceedings of the Twenty-third Annual Climate Diagnostics Workshop, 215-218.
Behringer, D. W., M. Ji, and A. Leetmaa, 1998: An improved coupled model for ENSO prediction and implications for ocean initialization. Part I: The ocean data assimilation system. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 1013-1021.
Chelliah, M. and C. F. Ropelewski, 1999: Reanalysis based Tropospheric Temperature Estimates: Uncertainties in the Context of Global Climate Change Detection. J. Climate, (submitted).
Dlugokencky, E. J., K. A. Masarie, P.M. Lang and P. P. Tans, 1998: Continuing decline in the growth rate of the atmospheric methane burden. Nature, 393, 447-450.
Etheridge, D. M., Pearman, G. I., and P. J. Fraser, 1992: Changes in tropospheric methane between 1841 and 1978 from a high accumulation rate Antarctic ice core. Tellus, 44, 282-294.
Farman, J. C., B. G. Gardiner, and J. D. Shanklin, 1985: Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal CLOx/NOx interaction. Nature, 315, 207-210.
Gray, W. M., 1984: Atlantic seasonal hurricane frequency: Part I: El Niņo and 30-mb quasibiennial oscillation influences. Mon. Wea. Rev., 112, 1669-1683.
Halpert, M. S., G. D. Bell, V. E. Kousky, and C. F. Ropelewski, 1996: Climate assessment for 1995. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, S1-S44.
Halpert, M. S. and C. F. Ropelewski, 1992: Surface temperature patterns associated with the Southern Oscillation. J. Climate, 5, 577-593.
Hofmann, D. J., S. J. Oltmans, J. M. Harris, B. J. Johnson, and J. A. Lathrop, 1997: Ten years of ozonesonde measurements at the South Pole: implications for recovery of springtime Antarctic ozone. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 8931-8943.
Hurrell, J. W., 1995: Decadal trends in the North Atlantic oscillation: Regional temperature and precipitation. Science, 269, 676-697.
Jones, P. D., T. J. Osburn, and K. R. Briffa, 1997: Estimating sampling errors in large-scale temperature averages. J. Climate, 10, 2548-2568.
Kalnay, E., and Coauthors, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-year Reanalysis Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 437-471.
Keyser, D., and M. A. Shapiro, 1986: A review of the structure and dynamics of upper-level frontal zones. Mon. Wea. Rev., 114, 452-499.
Kousky, V. E. and M. T. Kayano, 1994: Principal modes of outgoing longwave radiation and 250-mb circulation for the South American sector. J. Climate, 7, 1131-1143.
Landsea, C. W., G. D. Bell, W. M. Gray, S. B. Goldenberg, 1998: The extremely active 1995 Atlantic hurricane season: Environment conditions and verification of seasonal forecasts. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 1174-1193.
Myhre, G., Highwood, E. J., Shine, K. P., and F. Stordal, 1998: New estimates of radiative forcing due to well mixed greenhouse gases. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 2715-2718.
Reed, R. J., D. C. Norquist, and E. E. Recker, 1977: The structure and properties of African wave disturbances as observed during Phase III of GATE. Mon. Wea. Rev., 105, 317-333.
Reynolds, R. W., and T. Smith, 1995: A high-resolution global sea surface temperature climatology. J. Climate, 8, 1571-1583.
Ropelewski, C. F., and M. S. Halpert, 1986: North American precipitation and temperature patterns associated with the El Niņo_Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Mon. Wea. Rev., 114, 2352-2362.
______, and ______, 1987: Global and regional scale precipitation patterns associated with the El Niņo/Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 1606-1626.
______, and ______, 1989: Precipitation patterns associated with the high index phase of the Southern Oscillation. J. Climate, 2, 268-284.
Sardeshmukh, P. D., and B. J. Hoskins, 1988: The generation of global rotational flow by steady idealized tropical divergence. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 1228-1251.
Simpson, R. H., 1974: The hurricane disaster potential scale. Weatherwise, 27, 169-186.
Spencer, R. W., J. R. Christy, and N. C. Grody, 1990: Global atmospheric temperature monitoring with satellite microwave measurements: Method and results 1979-84. J. Climate, 3, 1111-1128.
Spencer, R. W., and J. R. Christy, 1992: Precision and radiosonde validation of satellite gridpoint temperature anomalies. Part II: A tropospheric retrieval and trends during 1979-90. J. Climate, 5, 858-866.
Trenberth, K , 1990: Recent observed interdecadal climatic changes in the Northern Hemisphere. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 71, 988 - 993.
Wallace, J. M., and D. S. Gutzler, 1981: Teleconnections in the geopotential height field during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 785-812.
WMO/UNEP, 1994: Scientific assessment of ozone depletion: 1994. WMO, Rep. No. 37. [Available from the World Meteorological Organization, Casa Postale No. 2300, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
Xie, P. and P. A. Arkin, 1996: Analyses of global monthly precipitation using gauge observations, satellite summaries, and numerical model predictions. J. Climate, 9, 840-858.
Xie, P. and P. A. Arkin, 1998: Global monthly precipitation estimates from satellite-observed outgoing longwave radiation. J. Climate, 11,137-164.