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Table of Contents

1. Introduction 

2. Climate and global change issues

        a. Surface temperature 

        b. Tropospheric/stratospheric temperatures 

                1) Troposphere

                2) Lower stratosphere 

        c. Trace gases

                1) Ozone

                        i) Continental United States 

                        ii) Southern Hemisphere 

                2) Carbon dioxide 

                3) Methane

                4) Global chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

        d. Northern Hemisphere snow cover

3. The strong 1997-98 El Niņo and transition to a La Niņa episode

        a. Overview  

        b. The 1997-98 El Niņo

        c. The jet streams across the N. Pacific and North America during January-March 1998

        d. Evolution of the 1998 La Niņa

4. Regional climate highlights

        a. North America  

                1) The 1998 North Atlantic and eastern North Pacific hurricane season

                        i) Overview 

                        ii) June-July

                        iii) August-November

                2) APR-JUN 1998 U.S. drought in the South; flooding in the Midwest and Northeast

                        i) Temperature and rainfall

                        ii) Atmospheric circulation

                3) The 1997/98 Mexican Drought

        b. Asia 

                1) Indian summer monsoon

                2) Yangtze river flooding: July-August 1998

        c. Africa

                1) June-September 1998: Western Africa Rainy Season

                2) October 1997-April 1998: Southern Africa Rainy Season

        d. South America

        e. Australia

5. Seasonal summaries

Appendix: Contributors