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FIG. 83. September–November 1999 surface temperature anomalies (top, oC) and precipitation percentiles based on a gamma distribution fit to the 1979–95 base period (bottom). Temperature anomalies (1961–90 base period) are based on station data over land and sea surface temperature data over water. Precipitation data are obtained from a merge of rain gauge observations and satellite-derived precipitation estimates (Xie and Arkin 1997). The analysis is omitted in data-sparse regions (white areas).