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Expert Assessments

Climate Assessment Table of Contents


Aceituno, P., 1988: On the functioning of the Southern Oscillation in the South American sector. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116, 505-525.

Bakwin, P. S., P. P. Tans, and P. C. Novelli, 1994: Carbon monoxide budget in the Northern Hemisphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 433–436.

Bell, G. D., and L. F. Bosart, 1994: Midtropospheric closed cyclone formation over the southwestern United States, the eastern United States, and the Alps. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122, 791–813.

Bell, G. D. and M. S. Halpert, 1998: Climate assessment for 1997. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79, S1–S50.

Bell, G. D. and M. Chelliah, 1999: The African easterly jet and its link to Atlantic basin tropical cyclone activity and the global monsoon system. Proceedings of the Twenty-third Annual Climate Diagnostics Workshop, 215–218.

Behringer, D. W., M. Ji, and A. Leetmaa, 1998: An improved coupled model for ENSO prediction and implications for ocean initialization. Part I: The ocean data assimilation system. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 1013–1021.

Butler, J. H., M. Battle, M. Bender, S. A. Montzka, A. D. Clarke, E. S. Saltzman, C. Sucher, J. Severinghaus, and J. W. Elkins. 1999. A record of atmospheric halocarbon concentrations during the twentieth century from polar firn air. Nature, 399, 749–755.

Butler, J. H., S. A. Montzka, A. D. Clarke, J. M. Lobert, and J. W. Elkins. 1998: Growth and distribution of halons in the atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 103, (D1): 1503–1511.

Ciais, P., P. P. Tans, and M. Trolier, 1995: A large Northern Hemisphere terrestrial CO2 sink indicated by the 13C/12C ratio of atmospheric CO2. Science, 269, 1098–1102.

Conway, T. J., P. P. Tans, L. S. Waterman, K. W. Thoning, D. R. Kitzis, K. A. Masarie, and N. Zhang, 1994: Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the NOAA CMDL global air sampling network. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 22831–22855.

Dai, A., I. Y. Fung, and A. D. Del Genio, 1997: Surface observed global land precipitation variations during 1900–88. J. Climate, 10, 2943–2961.

Daniel, J. S. and S. Solomon, 1998: On the climate forcing of carbon monoxide. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 13,249–13,260.

Fraser, P. J., D. E. Oram, C. E. Reeves, S. A. Penkett, and A. McCulloch. 1998: Southern hemispheric halon trends (1978–1998) and global halon emissions. J. Geophys. Res, (submitted).

Gadgil, S. J., P. V. Joseph, and N. V. Joshi, 1984: Ocean–atmosphere coupling over monsoon regions. Nature, 312, 141–143.

Gray, W. M., 1984: Atlantic seasonal hurricane frequency: Part I: El Niño and 30-mb quasibiennial oscillation influences. Mon. Wea. Rev., 112, 1669–1683.

Gutzler, D. S., and J. W. Preston, 1997: Evidence for a relationship between spring snow cover in North America and summer rainfall in New Mexico. Geophys. Res. Letters, 24, 2207–2210.

Halpert, M. S. and C. F. Ropelewski, 1992: Surface temperature patterns associated with the Southern Oscillation. J. Climate, 5, 577–593.

Halpert, M. S., and G. D. Bell, 1997: Climate Assessment for 1996. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 78, S1-S49.

Hastenrath, S., 1995: Recent Advances in tropical climate prediction. J. Climate, 8, 1519–1532.

Higgins, R. W., K. C. Mo and Y. Yao, 1998: Interannual variability of the United States summer precipitation regime with emphasis on the Southwestern Monsoon. J. Climate, 11, 2582–2606.

Hofmann, D. J., S. J. Oltmans, J. M. Harris, B. J. Johnson, and J. A. Lathrop, 1997: Ten years of ozonesonde measurements at the South Pole: implications for recovery of springtime Antarctic ozone. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 8931–8943.

Janowiak, J., 1988: An investigation of interannual rainfall variability in Africa. J. Climate, 3, 240-255.

Janowiak, J. and P. Xie, 1999: CAMS-OPI: A global satellite-rain gauge merged product for real-time precipitation monitoring applications. J. Climate, 12, 3335–3342.

Kalnay, E., and Coauthors, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-year Reanalysis Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 437–471.

Keeling, C. D., T. P. Whorf, M. Wahlen, and J. Vanderplicht, 1995: Interannual extremes in the rate of rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide since 1980. Nature, 375, 666–670.

Krishna Kumar, K., B. Rajagopalan, and M. A. Cane, 1999: On the weakening relationship between the Indian monsoon and ENSO. Science, 284, 2156–2159.

Landsea, C. W., G. D. Bell, W. M. Gray, S. B. Goldenberg, 1998: The extremely active 1995 Atlantic hurricane season: Environment conditions and verification of seasonal forecasts. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 1174–1193.

Lelieveld, J., P. J. Crutzen, and C. Brühl, 1993: Climate effects of atmospheric methane. Chemosphere, 26, 739–768.

Mattocks, R. C., and R. Bleck, 1986: Jet streak dynamics and geostrophic adjustment process during the initial stages of lee cyclogenesis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 114, 2033–2056.

Mo, K. C. and V. E. Kousky, 1993: Further analysis of the relationship between circulation anomaly patterns and tropical convection. J. Geophys. Res., 98, 5103–5113.

Montzka, S. A., J. H. Butler, J. W. Elkins, T. M. Thompson, A. D. Clarke, and L. T. Lock. 1999: Present and future trends in the atmospheric burden of ozone-depleting halogens. Nature, 398, 690–694.

Montzka, S. A., J. H. Butler, R. C. Myers, T. M. Thompson, T. H. Swanson, A. D. Clarke, L. T. Lock, and J. W. Elkins. 1996: Decline in the tropospheric abundance of halogen from halocarbons: Implications for stratospheric ozone depletion. Science, 272, (5266): 1318–1322.

National Academy of Sciences, 2000: Reconciling observations of global temperature change. [Available from National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Box 285, Washington, D. C. 20055.]

Prather, M. J., 1996: Natural modes and time scales in atmospheric chemistry: theory, GWPs for CH4 and CO, and runaway growth. Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 2597–2600.

Reed, R. J., D. C. Norquist, and E. E. Recker, 1977: The structure and properties of African wave disturbances as observed during Phase III of GATE. Mon. Wea. Rev., 105, 317–333.

Ropelewski, C. F., and M. S. Halpert, 1987: Global and regional scale precipitation patterns associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 1606–1626.

______, and ______, 1989: Precipitation patterns associated with the high index phase of the Southern Oscillation. J. Climate, 2, 268–284.

Shapiro, L. J. and S. B. Goldenberg, 1998: Atlantic sea surface temperatures and tropical cyclone formation. J Climate, 11, 578–590.

Simpson, R. H., 1974: The hurricane disaster potential scale. Weatherwise, 27, 169–186.

Smith, T. M. and R. W. Reynolds, 1998: A high-resolution global sea surface temperature climatology for the 1961–90 base period. J. Climate, 11, 3320–3323.

Spencer, R. W., J. R. Christy, and N. C. Grody, 1990: Global atmospheric temperature monitoring with satellite microwave measurements: Method and results 1979–84. J. Climate, 3, 1111–1128.

Spencer, R. W., and J. R. Christy, 1992: Precision and radiosonde validation of satellite gridpoint temperature anomalies. Part II: A tropospheric retrieval and trends during 1979–90. J. Climate, 5, 858–866.

Thompson, D. W. J., and J. M. Wallace, 2000: Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part I: Month-to-month variability. J. Climate (in press).

Wallace, J. M., and D. S. Gutzler, 1981: Teleconnections in the geopotential height field during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 785–812.

WMO/UNEP, 1994: Scientific assessment of ozone depletion: 1994. WMO, Rep. No. 37. [Available from the World Meteorological Organization, Casa Postale No. 2300, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland.