** NCEP/Climate Prediction Center ATLAS No. 2 **

**4. Comparisons**

**4.1 Zonal Mean Fields**

Figure 3. Time-latitude sections of the 200-hPa zonal mean u-wind in (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the difference (NCEP-DAO). In (a) and (b) the contour interval is 5 m s-1 and in (c) the contour interval is 1 m s-1. The negative values are shaded.

Figure 4. Time-latitude sections of the 200-hPa zonal mean v-wind in (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the difference (NCEP-DAO). In (a) and (b) the contour interval is 0.5 m s-1 and in (c) the contour interval is 0.3 m s-1. The negative values are shaded.

Figure 5. Time-latitude sections of the 500-hPa zonal mean height field in (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the difference (NCEP-DAO). In (a) and (b) the contour interval is 100 m and in (c) the contour interval is 10 m.

Figure 6. Latitude-pressure sections of zonal mean u-wind for DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the difference (NCEP-DAO). In (a) and (b) the contour interval is 5 m s-1 and in (c) the contour interval is 0.5 m s-1. The negative values are shaded.

Figure 7. Standard deviation of the zonal mean u-wind within DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the CDDB. The contour interval is 0.5 m s-1. Values greater than 2 m s-1 are shaded.

Figure 8. Latitude-pressure sections of zonal mean u-wind for JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the difference (NCEP-DAO). In (a) and (b) the contour interval is 5 m s-1 and in (c) the contour interval is 0.5 m s-1. The negative values are shaded.

Figure 9. Standard deviation of the zonal mean u-wind within JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the CDDB. The contour interval is 0.5 m s-1. Values greater than 2 m s-1 are shaded.

Figure 10. Latitude-pressure sections of zonal mean v-wind for DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the difference (NCEP-DAO). The contour interval is 0.5 m s-1. The negative values are shaded.

Figure 11. Standard deviation of the zonal mean v-wind for DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the CDDB. The contour interval is 0.1 m s-1. Values greater than 0.2 m s-1 are shaded.

Figure 12. Latitude-pressure sections of zonal mean v-wind for JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the difference (NCEP-DAO). The contour interval is 0.5 m s-1. The negative values are shaded.

Figure 13. Standard deviation of the zonal mean v-wind within JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the CDDB. The contour interval is 0.1 m s-1. Values greater than 0.2 m s-1 are shaded.

Figure 14. Latitude-pressure sections of zonal mean temperature for DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the difference (NCEP-DAO). In (a) and (b) the contour interval is 10 K and in (c) the contour interval is 1 K. In (c) the negative values are shaded.

Figure 15. Standard deviation of the zonal mean temperature for DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, and (b) the DAO. The contour interval is 0.2 K. Values greater than 1 K are shaded.

Figure 16. Latitude-pressure sections of zonal mean temperature for JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the difference (NCEP-DAO). In (a) and (b) the contour interval is 10 K and in (c) the contour interval is 1 K. In (c) the negative values are shaded.

Figure 17. Standard deviation of the zonal mean temperature within JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, and (b) the DAO. The contour interval is 0.2 K. Values greater than 1 K are shaded.

Figure 18. Latitude-pressure sections of zonal mean vertical velocity for DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the difference (NCEP-DAO). The contour interval is 5x10-3 Pa s-1. The negative values are shaded.

Figure 19. Standard deviation of the zonal mean vertical velocity within DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the CDDB. Pa s-1 are shaded.

Figure 20. Latitude-pressure sections of zonal mean vertical velocity for JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the difference (NCEP-DAO). The contour interval is 5x10-3 Pa s-1. The negative values are shaded.

Figure 21. Standard deviation of the zonal mean vertical velocity within JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the CDDB. The contour interval is 1x10-3 Pa s-1. Values greater than 3x10-3 Pa s-1 are shaded.

Figure 22. Latitude-pressure sections of zonal mean specific humidity for DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the difference (NCEP-DAO). In (a) and (b) the contour interval is 1 g kg-1 and in (c) the contour interval is 0.2 g kg-1.

Figure 23. Standard deviation of the zonal mean specific humidity within DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP and (b) the DAO. The contour interval is 0.05 g kg-1. Values greater than 0.2 g kg-1 are shaded.

Figure 24. Latitude-pressure sections of zonal mean specific humidity for JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the difference (NCEP-DAO). In (a) and (b) the contour interval is 1 g kg-1 and in (c) the contour interval is 0.2 g kg-1.

Figure 25. Standard deviation of the zonal mean specific humidity within JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP and (b) the DAO. The contour interval is 0.05 g kg-1. Values greater than 0.2 g kg-1 are shaded.

**4.2 Global Fields**

Figure 26. 200-hPa u-wind for DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the difference (NCEP-DAO). In (a) and (b) the contour interval is 5 m s-1 and in (c) the contour interval is 1 m s-1 and the zero contour is omitted for clarity. The negative values are shaded.

Figure 27. Standard deviation of the 200-hPa u-wind within DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the CDDB. The contour interval is 1.0 m s-1 (starting from 3.0 m s-1). Values greater than 4 m s-1 are shaded.

Figure 28. 850-hPa u-wind for DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the difference (NCEP-DAO). In (a) and (b) the contour interval is 3 m s-1 and in (c) the contour interval is 1 m s-1 and the zero contour is omitted for clarity. The negative values are shaded.

Figure 29. Standard deviation of the 850-hPa u-wind within DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the CDDB. The contour interval is 1.0 m s-1. Values greater than 2 m s-1 are shaded.

Figure 30. 200-hPa u-wind for JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the difference (NCEP-DAO). In (a) and (b) the contour interval is 5 m s-1 and in (c) the contour interval is 1 m s-1 and the zero contour is omitted for clarity. The negative values are shaded.

Figure 31. Standard deviation of the 200-hPa u-wind within JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the CDDB. The contour interval is 1.0 m s-1 (starting from 3.0 m s-1). Values greater than 4 m s-1 are shaded.

Figure 32. 850-hPa u-wind for JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the difference (NCEP-DAO). In (a) and (b) the contour interval is 3 m s-1 and in (c) the contour interval is 1 m s-1 and the zero contour is omitted for clarity. The negative values are shaded.

Figure 33. Standard deviation of the 850-hPa u-wind within JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the CDDB. The contour interval is 1.0 m s-1. Values greater than 2 m s-1 are shaded.

Figure 34. 200-hPa v-wind for DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the difference (NCEP-DAO). In (a) and (b) the contour interval is 2 m s-1 and in (c) the contour interval is 1 m s-1 and the zero contour is omitted for clarity. The negative values are shaded.

Figure 35. Standard deviation of the 200-hPa v-wind within DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the CDDB. The contour interval is 1.0 m s-1. Values greater than 3 m s-1 are shaded.

Figure 36. 850-hPa v-wind for DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the difference (NCEP-DAO). In (a) and (b) the contour interval is 2 m s-1 and in (c) the contour interval is 1 m s-1 and the zero contour is omitted for clarity. The negative values are shaded.

Figure 37. Standard deviation of the 850-hPa v-wind within DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the CDDB. The contour interval is 0.5 m s-1 (starting from 1.0 m s-1). Values greater than 2 m s-1 are shaded.

Figure 38. 200-hPa v-wind for JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the difference (NCEP-DAO). In (a) and (b) the contour interval is 2 m s-1 and in (c) the contour interval is 1 m s-1 and the zero contour is omitted for clarity. The negative values are shaded.

Figure 39. Standard deviation of the 200-hPa v-wind within JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the CDDB. The contour interval is 1.0 m s-1. Values greater than 3 m s-1 are shaded.

Figure 40. 850-hPa v-wind for JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the difference (NCEP-DAO). In (a) and (b) the contour interval is 2 m s-1 and in (c) the contour interval is 1 m s-1 and the zero contour is omitted for clarity. The negative values are shaded.

Figure 41. Standard deviation of the 850-hPa v-wind within JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the CDDB. The contour interval is 0.5 m s-1. Values greater than 2 m s-1 are shaded.

Figure 42. 500-hPa eddy (deviation from the zonal mean) height field for DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the difference (NCEP-DAO). In (a) and (b) the contour interval is 30 m and in (c) the contour interval is 10 m. The negative values are shaded.

Figure 43. Standard deviation of the 500-hPa eddy (deviation from the zonal mean) height field within DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the CDDB. The contour interval is 5 m . Values greater than 30 m are shaded.

Figure 44. 500-hPa eddy (deviation from the zonal mean) height field for JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the difference (NCEP-DAO). In (a) and (b) the contour interval is 30 m and in (c) the contour interval is 10 m. The negative values are shaded.

Figure 45. Standard deviation of the 500-hPa eddy (deviation from the zonal mean) height field within JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the CDDB. The contour interval is 5 m . Values greater than 30 m are shaded.

Figure 46. 200-hPa eddy (deviation from the zonal mean) streamfunction for DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the difference (NCEP-DAO). In (a) and (b) the contour interval is 5x106 m2 s-1 and in (c) the contour interval is 1x106 m2 s-1.

Figure 47. Standard deviation of the 200-hPa eddy (deviation from the zonal mean) streamfunction within DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the CDDB. The contour interval is 1x106 m2 s-1 . Values greater than 4x106 m2 s-1 are shaded.

Figure 48. 200-hPa eddy (deviation from the zonal mean) streamfunction for JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the difference (NCEP-DAO). In (a) and (b) the contour interval is 5x106 m2 s-1 and in (c) the contour interval is 1x106 m2 s-1.

Figure 49. Standard deviation of the 200-hPa eddy (deviation from the zonal mean) streamfunction within JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the CDDB. The contour interval is 1x10 6 m2 s-1 . Values greater than 4x10 6 m2 s-1 are shaded.

Figure 50. 200-hPa velocity potential for DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the difference (NCEP-DAO). In (a) and (b) the contour interval is 1x106 m2 s-1 and in (c) the contour interval is 0.5x106 m2 s-1.

Figure 51. Standard deviation of the 200-hPa velocity potential within DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the CDDB. The contour interval is 0.2x106 m2 s-1. Values greater than 2x106 m2 s-1 are shaded.

Figure 52. 850-hPa velocity potential for DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the difference (NCEP-DAO). In (a) and (b) the contour interval is 1x106 m2 s-1 and in (c) the contour interval is 0.3x106 m2 s-1.

Figure 53. Standard deviation of the 850-hPa velocity potential within DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the CDDB. The contour interval is 0.2x106 m2 s-1. Values greater than 1x106 m2 s-1 are shaded.

Figure 54. 200-hPa velocity potential for JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the difference (NCEP-DAO). In (a) and (b) the contour interval is 1x106 m2 s-1 and in (c) the contour interval is 0.5x106 m2 s-1.

Figure 55. Standard deviation of the 200-hPa velocity potential within JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the CDDB. The contour interval is 0.2x106 m2 s-1. Values greater than 2x106 m2 s-1 are shaded.

Figure 56. 850-hPa velocity potential for JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the difference (NCEP-DAO). In (a) and (b) the contour interval is 1x106 m2 s-1 and in (c) the contour interval is 0.3x106 m2 s-1.

Figure 57. Standard deviation of the 850-hPa velocity potential within JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the CDDB. The contour interval is 0.2x106 m2 s-1. Values greater than 1x106 m2 s-1 are shaded.

Figure 58. Mean sea-level pressure for DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the difference (NCEP-DAO). The contour intervals are: (a) 4 hPa, (b) 4 hPa and (c) 2 hPa. In (a) and (b) the values greater than 1020 hPa are shaded and in (c) the negative values are shaded.

Figure 59. Standard deviation of the mean sea-level pressure within DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, and (b) the DAO. The contour interval is 1 hPa. Values greater than 3 hPa are shaded.

Figure 60. Mean sea-level pressure for JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the difference (NCEP-DAO). The contour intervals are: (a) 4 hPa, (b) 4 hPa and (c) 2 hPa. In (a) and (b) the values greater than 1020 hPa are shaded and in (c) the negative values are shaded.

Figure 61. Standard deviation of the mean sea-level pressure within JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, and (b) the DAO. The contour interval is 1 hPa. Values greater than 3 hPa are shaded.

Figure 62. Total precipitable water for DJF (Dec 87-Jan 92) from (a) NCEP, (b) DAO, and (c)the difference (NCEP-DAO). The contour intervals are: (a) 5 kg m-2 , (b) 5 kg m-2 and (c) 3 kg m-2. In (a) and (b) values greater than 40 kg m-2 are shaded and in (c) the negative values are shaded.

Figure 63. Total precipitable water for DJF (Dec 87-Jan 92) from (a) (NCEP-SSM/I), (b) (DAO-SSM/I), and (c) SSM/I. The contour intervals are (a) 3 kg m-2 , (b) 3 kg m-2, and (c) 5 kg m-2. In (a) and (b) negative values are shaded and in (c) values greater than 40 kg m-2 are shaded.

Figure 64. Standard deviation of the total precipitable water within DJF (Dec 87 - Jan 92) from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the SSM/I. The contour interval is 2 kg m-2. Values greater than 2 kg m-2 are shaded.

Figure 65. Total precipitable water for JJA (Jul 87-Aug 91) from (a) NCEP, (b) DAO, and (c)the difference (NCEP-DAO). The contour intervals are (a) 5 kg m-2 , (b) 5 kg m-2, and (c) 3 kg m-2. In (a) and (b) values greater than 40 kg m-2 are shaded and in (c) the negative values are shaded.

Figure 66. Total precipitable water for JJA (Jul 87 - Aug 91) from (a) (NCEP-SSM/I), (b) (DAO-SSM/I), and (c) SSM/I. The contour intervals are (a) 3 kg m-2 , (b) 3 kg m-2 and (c) 5 kgm-2. In (a) and (b) negative values are shaded and in (c) values greater than 40 kg m-2 are shaded.

Figure 67. Standard deviation of the total precipitable water within JJA (Jul 87 - Aug 91) from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the SSM/I. The contour interval is 2 kg m-2. Values greater than 2 kg m-2 are shaded.

**4.3 Surface Energy Balance**

Figure 68. Latent heat flux for DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO and (c) the COADS. The contour interval is 30 W m-2. Values greater than 90 W m-2 are shaded.

Figure 69. Standard deviation of the latent heat flux within DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the COADS. The contour interval is 10 W m-2. Values greater than 20 W m-2 are shaded.

Figure 70. Latent heat flux for JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO and (c) the COADS. The contour interval is 30 W m-2. Values greater than 90 W m-2 are shaded.

Figure 71. Standard deviation of the latent heat flux within JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the COADS. The contour interval is 10 W m-2. Values greater than 20 W m-2 are shaded.

Figure 72. Sensible heat flux for DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO and (c) the COADS. The contour intervals are -5, 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 W m-2. Values greater than 30 W m-2 are shaded.

Figure 73. Standard deviation of the sensible heat flux within DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the COADS. The contour interval is 4 W m-2. Values greater than 4 W m-2 are shaded.

Figure 74. Sensible heat flux for JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO and (c) the COADS. The contour intervals are -5, 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 W m-2. Values greater than 30 W m-2 are shaded.

Figure 75. Standard deviation of the sensible heat flux within JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the COADS. The contour interval is 4 W m-2. Values greater than 4 W m-2 are shaded.

Figure 76. Net surface shortwave radiation for DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO and (c) the COADS. The contour interval is 40 W m-2. Values greater than 120 W m-2 are shaded.

Figure 77. Standard deviation of the net surface shortwave radiation within DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the COADS. are shaded.

Figure 78. Net surface shortwave radiation for JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO and (c) the COADS. The contour interval is 40 W m-2. Values greater than 120 W m-2 are shaded.

Figure 79. Standard deviation of the net surface shortwave radiation within JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the COADS. The contour interval is 10 W m-2. Values greater than 10 W m-2 are shaded.

Figure 80. Net surface longwave radiation for DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO and (c) the COADS. The contour interval is 15 W m-2. Values greater than 60 W m-2 are shaded.

Figure 81. Standard deviation of the net surface longwave radiation within DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the COADS. The contour interval is 5 W m-2. Values greater than 5 W m-2 are shaded.

Figure 82. Net surface longwave radiation for JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO and (c) the COADS. The contour interval is 15 W m-2. Values greater than 60 W m-2 are shaded.

Figure 83. Standard deviation of the net surface longwave radiation within JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the COADS. The contour interval is 5 W m-2. Values greater than 5 W m-2 are shaded.

Figure 84. Net surface heat flux for DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO and (c) the COADS. The contour interval is 60 W m-2. Values greater than 120 W m-2 (less than -120 W m-2) are shaded dark (light).

Figure 85. Standard deviation of the net surface heat flux within DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the COADS. The contour interval is 20 W m-2. Values greater than 20 W m-2 are shaded.

Figure 86. Net surface heat flux for JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO and (c) the COADS. The contour interval is 60 W m-2. Values greater than 120 W m-2 (less than -120 W m-2) are shaded dark (light).

Figure 87. Standard deviation of the net surface heat flux within JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO, and (c) the COADS. The contour interval is 20 W m-2. Values greater than 20 W m-2 are shaded.

** 4.4 Precipitation and Surface Temperature**

Figure 88. Precipitation for DJF 87-92 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the NCEP (corrected) and (c) the DAO. The contour interval is 2 mm day-1. Values greater than 8 mm day-1 are shaded.

Figure 89. Precipitation from DJF 87-92 from (a) the Schemm, (b) the Xie/Arkin (OLR) and (c) the Xie/Arkin (merged). The contour interval is 2 mm day-1. Values greater than 8 mm day-1 are shaded.

Figure 90. Precipitation for MAM 88-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the NCEP (corrected) and (c) the DAO. The contour interval is 2 mm day-1. Values greater than 8 mm day-1 are shaded.

Figure 91. Precipitation from MAM 88-93 from (a) the Schemm, (b) the Xie/Arkin (OLR) and (c) the Xie/Arkin (merged). The contour interval is 2 mm day-1. Values greater than 8 mm day-1 are shaded.

Figure 92. Precipitation for JJA 87-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the NCEP (corrected) and (c) the DAO. The contour interval is 2 mm day-1. Values greater than 8 mm day-1 are shaded.

Figure 93. Precipitation from JJA 87-93 from (a) the Schemm, (b) the Xie/Arkin (OLR) and (c) the Xie/Arkin (merged). The contour interval is 2 mm day-1. Values greater than 8 mm day-1 are shaded.

Figure 94. Precipitation for SON 87-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the NCEP (corrected) and (c) the DAO. The contour interval is 2 mm day-1. Values greater than 8 mm day-1 are shaded.

Figure 95. Precipitation from SON 87-93 from (a) the Schemm, (b) the Xie/Arkin (OLR) and (c) the Xie/Arkin (merged). The contour interval is 2 mm day-1. Values greater than 8 mm day-1 are shaded.

Figure 96. Land areas over which the averages are done for the precipitation line plots in Figs. 97 and 98.

Figure 97. The mean (1985-1993) seasonal cycle of the regional mean precipitation over land from the NCEP (solid), the DAO (dash dotted) and the Xie/Arkin merged product (dashed).

Figure 98. The mean (1985-1993) seasonal cycle of the regional mean precipitation over land from the NCEP (solid), the DAO (dash dotted) and the Xie/Arkin merged product (dashed).

Figure 99. Mean (1985-1993) monthly precipitation (units: mm day-1) in the NCEP reanalysis.

Figure 100. Mean (1985-1993) monthly precipitation (units: mm day-1) in the DAO reanalysis.

Figure 101. Mean (1985-1993) monthly precipitation (units: mm day-1) except for the observations based on hourly gauge data (Higgins et al. 1996a).

Figure 102. Regions of the United States over which the averages are done in Fig. 103.

Figure 103. The mean (1985-1993) monthly precipitation (units: mm day-1) for selected regions in the United States from the DAO (thin solid lines), the NCEP (thick solid lines) and the observations (dash-dotted line) from Higgins et al. (1996a).

Figure 104. Surface air temperature for DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO and (c) the Schemm. The contour interval is 5 K. Values greater than 300 K (less than 250 K) are shaded dark (light).

Figure 105. Standard deviation of surface air temperature within DJF 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO and (c) the Schemm. The contour interval is 1 K. Values greater than 2 K are shaded.

Figure 106. Surface air temperature for MAM 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO and (c) the Schemm. The contour interval is 5 K. Values greater than 300 K (less than 250 K) are shaded dark (light).

Figure 107. Standard deviation of surface air temperature within MAM 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO and (c) the Schemm. The contour interval is 1 K. Values greater than 2 K are shaded.

Figure 108. Surface air temperature for JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO and (c) the Schemm. The contour interval is 5 K. Values greater than 300 K (less than 250 K) are shaded dark (light).

Figure 109. Standard deviation of surface air temperature within JJA 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO and (c) the Schemm. The contour interval is 1 K. Values greater than 2 K are shaded.

Figure 110. Surface air temperature for SON 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO and (c) the Schemm. The contour interval is 5 K. Values greater than 300 K (less than 250 K) are shaded dark (light).

Figure 111. Standard deviation of surface air temperature within SON 85-93 from (a) the NCEP, (b) the DAO and (c) the Schemm. The contour interval is 1 K. Values greater than 2 K are shaded.