The CD-ROM includes both monthly means, monthly variances. and monthly covariances. The variances [ave(x'x')], and covariances [ave(x'y')] are calculated using the deviations from that month's mean. In addition, some of the means are calculated using data striated by hour in order to provide some indication of the diurnal cycle.

People often need to examine long time series of monthly means. This is not difficult as GRIB data can be simply concatinated together. In addition GrADS provides a template option to logically combine files with different dates. The only disadvantages are that it requires disk space and little effort (concatinating, making a GrADS control and index files). By the way, we are planning to make a time-series CD-ROM. This CD-ROM will be much easier to use if you are interested in long time series; however, the number of fields will have to be severely limited.

MONTHLY/ATxxZ, xx=00,06,12,18 surface ma G convective/total precipitation rate (CPRAT/PRATE) 2 meter m6 G q (SPFH), T (TMP) 10 meter m6 G U/V (UGRD/VGRD) 925, 850 mb m0 L q (SPFH), T (TMP) 925-600 mb m0 L U (UGRD), V (VGRD) top ma G upward long wave flux (ULWRF) MONTHLY/OTHER 0-10,10-200 cm M6 G soil wetness (SOILW) 0-10,10-200, 300 cm M6 G soil temperature (TMP) mean sea level M0 L pressure (PRES) 2 meter M6 G q (SPFH), T (TMP) 10 meter M6 G U/V (UGRD/VGRD) col Ma G cloud fraction (TCDC) column, top Ma G long/short wave cloud forcing (CFNLF/CFNSF) top Ma G downward short wave flux (DSWRF) top Ma g upward long/short wave flux (ULWRF/USWRF) MONTHLY/OTHERVAR 0-10,10-200 cm V6 G soil wetness (SOILW) 0-10,10-200, 300 cm V6 G soil temperature (TMP) mean sea level V0 L pressure (PRES) 2 meter V6 G q (SPFH), T (TMP) 10 meter V6 G U/V (UGRD/VGRD) MONTHLY/PRS 1000-10 mb M0 L U'V' (CBMZW), U'T' (CBTZW), V'T' (CBTMW) 1000-100 mb M0 L U'omega' (CBUW), T'omega' (CBTW) 1000-300 mb M0 L U'q' (CBUQ) , V'q' (CBVQ), omega'q' (CBQW) 1000-10 mb M0 L Z (HGT), T (TMP), U/V (UGRD/VGRD), 1000-100 mb M0 L omega (VVEL) 1000-300 mb M0 L rel. humidity (RH), q (SPFH), * above fields are in ALL.PRS 850, 200 mb M0 L stream function (STRM), velocity pot (VPOT) levels = 1000 925 850 700 600 500 400 300 250 200 150 100 70 50 30 20 10 mb MONTHLY/PRSVAR 1000-10 mb V0 L Z (HGT), T (TMP), U/V (UGRD/VGRD) 1000-100 mb V0 L omega (VVEL) 1000-300 mb V0 L rel. humidity (RH), q (SPFH) * above fields are in ALL.PRS MONTHLY/SFC surface Ma G long/short wave cloud forcing (CFNLF/CFNSF) surface Ma G convective/total precipitation (CPRAT/PRATE) surface Mo G ice concentration (ICEC) surface Ma G sensible/latent heat flux (SHTFL/LHTFL) surface Ma G net long/short wave flux (NLWRS/NSWRS) surface M6 G potential evaporation (PEVPR) surface M0 L potential temperature (POT) surface M6 G pressure, 6 hour forecast (PRES) surface M0 L pressure, analysis, (PRES, file:PRESF00) surface M0 L precipitable water, analysis (PWAT) surface Mg L precipitable water, 1st guess (PWAT, file:PWATGES) surface Mr G runoff per 6 hours (RUNOF) surface M6 G skin temperature (height adjusted SST) (TMP) mean sea level Ma G observed SST (TMP) surface Ma G momentum flux (neg of wind stress) (UFLX/VFLX) surface Ma G upward long/short wave flux (ULWRF/USWRF) surface M6 G snow depth, water equiv. (WEASD) surface Ma G corrected precipitation (XPRATE) MONTHLY/SFCVAR surface Va G convective/total precipitation (CPRAT/PRATE) surface Va G sensible/latent heat flux (SHTFL/LHTFL) surface V6 G potential evaporation (PEVPR) surface V0 L potential temperature (POT) surface V6 G pressure, 6 hour forecast (PRES) surface V0 L pressure, analysis, (PRES, file:PRESF00) surface V0 L precipitable water, analysis (PWAT) surface Vr G runoff per 6 hours (RUNOF) surface V6 G skin temperature (height adjusted SST) (TMP) surface Va G momentum flux (neg of wind stress) (UFLX/VFLX) surface V6 G snow depth, water equiv. (WEASD) MONTHLY/THT 270-650K M0 L Montgomery streamfn (MNTSF), pressure (PRES) 270-650K M0 L pot. vorticity (PV), U/V (UGRD/VGRD) 270-650K M0 L mass-weighted U/V (UMAS/VMAS) levels = 270, 280, 290, 300, 315, 330, 350, 400, 450, 550, 650K MONTHLY/THTVAR 270-650K V0 L Montgomery streamfn (MNTSF), Pressure (PRES) 270-650K V0 L pot. vorticity (PV), U/V (UGRD/VGRD) 270-650K V0 L mass-weighted U/V (UMAS/VMAS) 270-650K OBS surface Mo L GPCP precipitation est. (PRATE, file=GPCPRAIN) surface Mo L merged precipitation est. (PRATE, file=MRGDRAIN) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ M0=monthly average of analyses (4 times per day) Ma=monthly average of averages/accumulations (4 times per day) Mg=monthly average of first guess (4 times per day) Mo=monthly average of observations Mr=monthly average of runoff occuring during 6 hours V0=variance of analyses from monthly mean Vo=variance of observations (4 times per day) m0=monthly average of analyses (once analysis per day) m6=monthly average of 6 hour forecasts (once forecast per day) ma=monthly average of 0-6 hour average/accumulation (once average per day) ob=observed L=2.5x2.5 lat-long grid (144x73) G=Gaussian grid (192x94)