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HOME > Climate & Weather Linkage > El Niño / Southern Oscillation (ENSO)

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Tropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures Animation

Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR)

Pentad mean and anomalous OLR

Time-longitude section of anomalous OLR

850-hPa Zonal Wind

Time-longitude Section (CDAS data)

Time-longitude Section (Anomalous)

Daily time series averaged over 160E-100W, 5N-5S
(CDAS data)

Daily time series for the standard index areas (see Figure T3, CDB)
(CDAS data)

Sea Surface Temperature (SST)

Weekly SST Anomalies

Time-longitude section of SST anomalies (5N-5S)

Time series of weekly SST anomalies for the 4 Niño regions

Time series of weekly SST and Climatology for the 4 Niño

Subsurface Tropical Pacific Ocean Analyses

(Click NCEP's Global Ocean Data Assimilation System for more Information)

Mean and anomalous equatorial temperatures

Equatorial depth of the 20C isotherm

Anomalous equatorial depth of the 20C isotherm

Equatorial 55 meter depth temperature anomalies

Equatorial 105 meter depth temperature anomalies

Equatorial 155 meter depth temperature anomalies

Sea level anomalies

Equatorial Upper-Ocean Heat Anomalies

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  • References

Barnston, A.G., C. F. Ropelewski, 1992: Prediction of ENSO episodes using canonical correlation analysis. J. Climate, 5, 1316-1345.

Barnston, A.G., M. Chelliah and S.B. Goldenberg, 1997: Documentation of a highly ENSO-related SST region in the equatorial Pacific. Atmosphere-Ocean, 35, 367-383.

Barnston, A. G., M. H. Glantz, and Y. He, 1999: Predictive skill of statistical and dynamical climate models in SST forecasts during the 1997-98 El Nino episode and the 1998 LNa Nina onset. Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 80, 217-243.

Halpert, M. S. and C. F. Ropelewski, 1992: Surface temperature patterns associated with the Southern Oscillation. J. Climate, 5, 577-593.

Higgins, R.W., Y. Zhou and H.-K. Kim, 2001: Relationships between El Nino-Southern Oscillation and the Arctic Oscillation: A Climate-Weather Link. NCEP/Climate Prediction Center ATLAS 8.

Higgins, R. W., V. E. Kousky, H.-K. Kim, W. Shi, and D. Unger, 2002: High frequency and trend adjusted composites of United States temperature and precipitation by ENSO phase, NCEP/Climate Prediction Center ATLAS No. 10, 22 pp.

Hoerling, M. P., and A. Kumar. 1997. Why do North American climate anomalies differ from one El Nino event to another? Geophysical Research Letters, 24 (1 May): 1059-1062.

Hoerling, M. P., and A. Kumar, 1997: Origins of extreme climate states during the 1982-83 ENSO winter. J. Climate, 10, 2859-2870.

Hoerling, M. P., and A. Kumar, 2000: Understanding and predicting extratropical teleconnections related to ENSO. In El Nio and the Southern Oscillation: Multi-scale Variationsnd Global and Regional Impacts, H.F. Diaz and V. Markgraf (Eds.), Cambridge University Press, 57-88.

Hoerling, M. P., A. Kumar, and T. Xu, 2001: Robustness of the nonlinear climate response to ENSO's extreme phases. J. Climate, 14, 1277-1293.

Kousky, V.E., M.T. Kayano, and I.F.A Cavalcanti, 1984: The Southern Oscillation: Oceanic-atmospheric circulation changes and related rainfall anomalies. Tellus, 36A, 490-504.

Kousky, V. E. 1997. Warm (El Nino) episode conditions return to the tropical Pacific. Mariners Weather Log 41, no.1 (Spring): 4-7.

Kousky, V. E. and R. W. Higgins, 2004: An Alert Classifications System for Monitoring and Assessment of the ENSO Cycle, Wea and Forecasting, 22, 353371

Kumar, A., and M. P. Hoerling, 1997: Interpretation and implications of observed inter-El Nio variability. J. Climate, 10, 83-91.

Kumar, A., and M. P. Hoerling, 1998: Annual cycle of Pacific/North American seasonal predictability associated with different phases of ENSO. J. Climate, 11, 3295-3308.

Kumar, A., A. Barnston, P. Peng, M. P. Hoerling, and L. Goddard, 2000: Changes in the spread of the seasonal mean atmospheric states associated with ENSO. J. Climate, 13, 3139-3151.

Kumar, A., and M. P. Hoerling, 2003: The nature and causes for the delayed atmospheric response to El Nino. J. Climate, 16, 1391-1403.

Leetma, Ants. 1989. The interplay of El Nino and La Nina. Oceanus, 32 (Summer) : 30-3434

Leetmaa, A. 1999: The first El Nio observed and forecasted from start to finish. Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 80, 111-112.

Rasmusson, E. M. and T. H. Carpenter, 1982: Variations in tropical sea surface temperature and surface wind fields associated with the Southern Oscillation / El. Nino. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110, 354-384.

Rasmusson, E. M., T. H. Carpenter, 1983: The relationship between eastern equatorial Pacific sea surface temperatures and rainfall over India and Sri Lanka. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 517-528.

Rasmusson, E. M., and J. M. Wallace, 1983: Meteorological aspects of El Nino / Southern Oscillation. Science, 222, 1195-1202.

Rasmusson, E. M. and K. Mo, 1993: Linkages between 200-mb tropical and extratropical circulation anomalies during the 1986-1989 ENSO cycle. J. Climate, 6, 595-616.

Ropelewski, C. F., and M. S. Halpert, 1986: North American precipitation and temperature patterns associated with the El Nino/ Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Mon. Wea. Rev., 114, 2352-2362.

Ropelewski, C. F., and M. S. Halpert ,1987: Global and regional scale precipitation patterns associated with the El Nino/ Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 1606-1626.

Ropelewski, C.F. and P.D. Jones, 1987: An extension of the Tahiti-Darwin Southern Oscillation Index. Mon. Wea. Rev, 115, 2161-2165.

Ropelewski, C. F., and M. S. Halpert, 1989: Precipitation patterns associated with the high index phase of the Southern Oscillation. J. Climate, 2, 268-284.

Ropelewski, C. F., and M. S. Halpert, 1996: Quantifying Southern Oscillation-precipitation relationships. J. Climate, 9, 1043-1059.

Xue, Y. and A. Leetmaa, 2000: Forecast of tropical pacific SST and sea level using a Markov model. accepted by Geophys. Res. Lett.

Xue, Y., A. Leetmaa, and M. Ji, 2000: ENSO prediction with Markov models: the impact of sea level. J. Climate, 13, 849-871.

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