The MJO remained active during the past week, with the RMM-based index and the CPC velocity potential index both indicating a robust signal over Africa. Anomalous divergence, associated with the MJO, is now stretching from the Americas to the Indian Ocean. There is some noise in the pattern associated with mid-latitude influences (over the eastern Pacific) and equatorial Rossby Waves (over the western Pacific). Enhanced convection has been measured over Africa and South America, with suppressed convection over the Indian Ocean. The signals over the Indian Ocean and both the western and central Pacific are likely related to low-frequency variability, which is now competing with the MJO variability.
The MJO signal is forecast to continue moving eastward across the Indian Ocean during Week-1, after which, the dynamical and statistical models diverge on the continuance of a signal. Interference with the IOD mode and a potential MJO in Phase 3 increases uncertainty in Week-2.
Tropical Cyclones Alfred and Bart developed during the past week, with Tropical Storm Alfred moving on-shore in northern Australia, while Tropical Storm Bart is over the South Pacific. During the next week, tropical cyclone formation is likely over the South Pacific, along the SPCZ, with some additional model signals near the Kimberly Coast, over the Timor Sea. During Week-2, signals for tropical cyclone formation wane, with only small signals over the Mozambique Channel.
Areas favoring above- or below-average rainfall are depicted in Week-1 based on the consensus of model guidance, which is broadly consistent with MJO phase 1/2 tropical precipitation composites. Parts of South America are expected to be fairly active, as well as a small region of the far eastern Pacific where SSTs remain well above-average. Suppressed convection is favored for much of the southern Maritime Continent and northern Australia. Above-average rainfall is more likely over parts of the eastern Indian Ocean and northern Maritime Continent, based on model guidance, the low-frequency state, and the enhanced phase of an equatorial Rossby wave. Enhanced convection is expected to continue over parts of the South Pacific.
The forecast for Week-2 is more uncertain, with the state of the MJO amidst the evolving background expected to become less clear. Enhanced convection is likely over the eastern Indian Ocean, but more so later in the period a signal is likely to emerge, centered over the Maritime Continent, where any potential remaining MJO signal would constructively interfere with the IOD mode. Model guidance diverges on the wet signal over western South America near Ecuador and Peru, though the signal is retained in the outlook with lower confidence.
Forecasts over Africa are made in consultation with the CPC international desk, and can represent local-scale conditions in addition to global-scale variability.
Product Release Information
The full Global Tropics Hazards and Benefits Outlook (GTH) is released once per week every Tuesday at 1730 UTC (1830 UTC when on standard time) including U.S. federal holidays. At the time of product release, there is a live briefing (available via webinar) open to all interested parties in which the latest conditions in the Tropics and the just released outlook and associated impacts are discussed. There is an opportunity to ask questions after the briefing and the briefings are available at the Live Briefing Archive and soon will be recorded.
CPC also issues an operational update of this product every Friday by 1730 UTC to further support the NWS regions. The update only spans the release period from June 1 through November 30 and a region from 120E to the Prime Meridian in longitude and from the equator to 40N in latitude. The update does not extend the time horizon of the product, but rather applies for the remaining 4 days of the previous Week-1 time period and Days 5-11 from the previous Week-2 period. This page will depict both the original and updated outlook maps as well short text outlining the forecast rationale for any changes.
The Global Tropics Hazards and Benefits Outlook is a forecast for areas with elevated odds for above- or below-median rainfall, above- or below-normal temperatures and regions where tropical cyclogenesis is favored for the upcoming Week-1 and Week-2 time periods. The rainfall outlook is for precipitation integrated over a week and targets broad-scale patterns, not local conditions as they will be highly variable. Above(below) median rainfall forecast areas are depicted in green and yellow respectively. Above(below) normal temperature forecast areas are depicted in orange and below respectively. Favored areas for tropical development are shown in red. Two measures of confidence are indicated, high (solid) and moderate (hatched) and are currently subjective in nature and not based on an objective system. Work towards a probabilistic format of the product and so an objective measure of confidence is ongoing. The weekly verification period ranges from 00 UTC Wednesday to 00 UTC the following Wednesday.
Along with the product graphic, a written text outlook discussion is also included at release time. The narrative provides a review of the past week across the global Tropics, a description of the current climate-weather situation, the factors and reasoning behind the depicted outlook and notes on any other issues the user should be aware of. The discussion discusses the impacts in the Tropics as well as potential impacts in the Extratropics when relevant.
Product Physical Basis
The product synthesizes information and expert analysis related to climate variability across multiple time scales and from various sources, including operational climate monitoring products. The physical basis for the outlooks include
El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) , the
Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), strength and variations of the monsoon systems, other coherent subseasonal tropical variability such as atmospheric Kelvin waves (KW), Equatorial Rossby waves (ERW), African easterly waves, as well as interactions with the extratropical circulation (i.e. high latitude blocking, low-latitude frontal activity, etc.).
Product Forecast Tools
The outlook maps are currently created subjectively based on a number of forecast tools, many of which are objective. The final depiction is an assessment of these forecast tools based on a number of factors to create the final product. Work is ongoing to create an objective consolidation of some of the available forecast tools to serve as a first guess for the forecaster. Forecast tools include MJO composites, empirical and dynamical based MJO, ERW and KW forecasts, and raw dynamical model guidance from a number of modeling systems. Tropical cyclone areas are based on MJO composites and statistical and dynamical tropical cyclone forecasts as well as raw model forecast guidance.
The product supports the NOAA mission in three primary ways:
- Assess and forecast important changes in the distribution of tropical convection (i.e., potential circulation changes across the Pacific and North America sectors) and communicate this information to NWS forecasters
- Provide advance notice of potential hazards related to climate, weather and hydrological events across the global tropics (including tropical cyclone risks for several NWS regions)
- Support various sectors of the U.S. economy (finance, energy, agriculture, water resource management) that have foreign interests.
The product is created through collaboration with other NOAA centers, [the National Hurricane Center (NHC) and the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC)], the Department of Defense [The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS)], the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Taiwan Central Weather Bureau, the State University of New York at Albany (SUNY) and the Center for Climate and Satellites (CICS), among other collaborators.
Product Users and Applications
Known users include U.S. government agencies such as NOAA [National Weather Service (NWS), River Forecast Centers (RFCs), the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Department of the Interior (U.S. Forest Service), aid organizations (U.S. and international Red Cross, USAID), domestic and global private sector interests (financial, energy, water resource management and agricultural sectors), international weather services and various media meteorologists.
Some special applications of the product in the past include extended range predictions to support Haiti earthquake and Deepwater Horizon oil spill relief efforts as well as support for the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) scientific field campaign held from October 2011 through March 2012.