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Beginning June 6, 2014, CPC will be issuing an operational update of this product every Friday by 1 PM ET to further support the NWS regions. The update will only span the release period from June 1 through November 30 and a region from 120E to the Prime Meridian in longitude and from the equator to 40N in latitude. The update will not extend the time horizon of the product, but rather apply for the remaining 4 days of the previous Week-1 time period and Days 5-11 from the previous Week-2 period. This page will depict both the original and updated outlook maps as well short text outlining the forecast rationale for any changes.

Last Updated - 09.12.14 (Update)

GIS Ready Formats
Tropical Cyclone Formation KMZ / KML / SHP KMZ / KML / SHP
Upper Tercile Precipitation KMZ / KML / SHP KMZ / KML / SHP
Lower Tercile Precipitation KMZ / KML / SHP KMZ / KML / SHP

Global Tropical Hazards/Benefits Assessment

Global Tropics Hazards and Benefits Outlook Discussion

Updated discussion
Last Updated: 09.12.14 Valid: 09.13.14 - 09.23.14
The MJO signal became incoherent on both the RMM and CPC velocity potential based indices as other modes of coherent tropical intraseasonal convective anomalies, including Western Hemisphere tropical cyclone activity and robust equatorial Kelvin Wave activity over the Indian Ocean, dominated the pattern. Tropical Storm Edouard developed over the central Atlantic, and is forecast to move west-northwestward or northwestward during the next several days before recurving well east of Bermuda as a hurricane. Over the eastern Pacific, Tropical Storm Odile developed just south of Mexico and Tropical Depression Sixteen formed further west. Sixteen is anticipated to dissipate during the next several days, while Odile is forecast to become a hurricane as it passes west of the Baja. Over the West Pacific, Tropical Storm Kalmaegi developed east of the Philippines and is forecast to intensify and make landfall near or over Luzon before entering the South China Sea.

Forecasts for enhanced tropical rainfall were adjusted in this updated outlook to reflect the latest model guidance, including impacts from the newly formed tropical cyclones. The current forecast track for Odile increases the potential for Gulf of California moisture surges to enhance the monsoon over the U.S. Southwest. Locally heavy rain associated with this enhanced monsoon activity could cause additional localized flash flooding in areas affected from record breaking rains earlier in the week. Locally heavy rainfall is also possible over portions of the U.S. Gulf Coast.

The NHC maintains a moderate potential for an area of low pressure currently over South Florida to develop into a tropical cyclone as it moves westward over the Gulf of Mexico. Additionally, several runs of the ensemble GFS favor tropical cyclogenesis in association with a disturbance moving into the Gulf of Mexico from the Yucatan early in the Week-2 period. Development of another tropical cyclone over the eastern Pacific late in Week-1 or early Week-2 is also favored by dynamical models and the NHC. Later in the Week-2 period, additional tropical cyclogenesis is possible over the central Atlantic, with most models favoring recurving tracks far from land. Over the West Pacific, a disturbance east of Kalmaegi has a moderate potential for development as it moves west-northwestward.

The original forecast discussion released September 9 follows.


The MJO became more coherent during the past several weeks, although other modes continue to strongly influence the overall pattern. Both the RMM and CPC velocity potential based MJO indices depicted an enhanced convective intraseasonal signal propagating from the Indian Ocean to the Maritime Continent. During the past several days, however, the amplitude of the RMM Index has decreased substantially as influence from other modes, such as tropical cyclone activity over the eastern Pacific and a Kelvin Wave over the Indian Ocean destructively interfered with the pattern. Destructive interference between the suppressed phase of the MJO, Kelvin Wave activity, and a SST-based lower frequency signal favoring enhanced convection over the central and eastern Pacific is also apparent.

There is considerable spread among dynamical model MJO index forecasts, but most solutions do not favor a continuation of the recently observed MJO signal over the Maritime Continent. The GFS and ECMWF forecasts both pull the index towards Phase-8 and 1, corresponding to enhanced convection over the Western Hemisphere, with renewed eastward propagation of enhanced convection towards the Indian Ocean. It is possible that a combination of forecasted tropical cyclone activity over the eastern Pacific and Atlantic, the low frequency signal, and model depictions favoring the evolution of Kelvin Wave activity over the Indian Ocean into a more robust intraseasonal signal are contributing to this forecasted evolution of the RMM Index. Based on recent observations, a continued eastward propagation of enhanced convection from the Maritime Continent to the western Pacific is anticipated, but there is considerable uncertainty regarding the future evolution of any remaining intraseasonal signal.

Tropical Depression Fourteen formed on September 7th just east of Hainan Island before making landfall over mainland China. Tropical Storm Fengshen developed on the same day south of Japan, and is forecast to recurve rapidly towards the northeast. Tropical cyclogenesis is favored during Week-1 over the central Atlantic as a broad area of enhanced convection moves west-northwestward. With a developing trough over the eastern CONUS, dynamical models favor a recurving track over open water for any potential tropical cyclone developing in this region. Additional tropical cyclone development over the central or eastern Atlantic is also possible during Week-2, with dynamical models continuing to favor recurving tracks with no direct U.S. impacts. Over the eastern Pacific, additional tropical cyclogenesis in the wake of Hurricane Norbert is favored during Week-1, with track forecasts bringing the potential tropical cyclone close to the Baja Peninsula. This track would favor additional Gulf moisture surges over northwestern Mexico and the southwestern U.S. There is a lower potential for a second tropical cyclone to form southwest of this region during Week-1. Dynamical models favor a continued active pattern over the eastern Pacific during Week-2, with additional tropical cyclogenesis possible. Most GFS ensemble members indicate development close to Mexico's southern coastline. Tropical cyclogenesis is possible during both Week-1 and Week-2 over the western Pacific east of the Philippines. Dynamical models also favor the potential for tropical cyclone development near land over the South China Sea during Week-1.

Enhanced convection is favored to persist over parts of northwestern India during the upcoming week. A swath of enhanced convection is forecast to extend eastward from southeastern Asia through the northwestern Pacific during Week-1, which is consistent with the recently observed MJO state. Dynamical models including the GFS, CFS, and ECMWF favor suppressed convection over the north-central Indian Ocean and far southern India. A southern suppressed ITCZ east of the Date Line and a broad area of low pressure favor enhanced convection over the central Pacific, with some models favoring tropical cyclone development in this area. Enhanced convection is forecast for the eastern Pacific, parts of Mexico, Central America, and the adjacent Gulf of Mexico and western Caribbean during Week-1, while suppressed convection is anticipated across the eastern Caribbean basin.

During Week-2, the GFS and ECMWF favor continued enhanced monsoonal activity over western and central India. There was considerable spread among the dynamical model depictions of convective anomalies across the Maritime Continent and western Pacific, but solutions generally favor enhanced convection over southeastern China, the South China Sea, and the West Pacific just south of Japan. The ECMWF and CFS both favor enhanced convection near and south of the equator east of New Guinea. Over the Western Hemisphere, widespread enhanced convection is anticipated, with tropical moisture contributing to an enhancement of the North American Monsoon and precipitation along a frontal boundary over the Gulf Coast States.

Forecasts for enhanced or suppressed convection over Africa are based on model forecasts of regional scale features and provided through coordination with the CPC Africa Desk.

Product Release Information

The Global Tropics Hazards and Benefits Outlook is released once per week every Tuesday at 1530 UTC (1630 UTC when on standard time) including U.S. federal holidays. At the time of product release, there is a live briefing (available via webinar) open to all interested parties in which the latest conditions in the Tropics and the just released outlook and associated impacts are discussed. There is an opportunity to ask questions after the briefing and the briefings are available at the Live Briefing Archive.

Product Description

The Global Tropics Hazards and Benefits Outlook is a forecast for areas with elevated odds for above- or below-median rainfall and regions where tropical cyclogenesis is favorable or unfavorable for the upcoming Week-1 and Week-2 time periods. The rainfall outlook is for precipitation integrated over a week and targets broad-scale patterns, not local conditions as they will be highly variable. Above(below) median rainfall forecast areas are depicted in green and yellow respectively. Favored areas for tropical development are shown in red. Two measures of confidence are indicated, high (solid) and moderate (hatched) and are currently subjective in nature and not based on an objective system. Work towards a probabilistic format of the product and so an objective measure of confidence is ongoing. The weekly verification period ranges from 00 UTC Wednesday to 00 UTC the following Wednesday.

Along with the product graphic, a written text outlook discussion is also included at release time. The narrative provides a review of the past week across the global Tropics, a description of the current climate-weather situation, the factors and reasoning behind the depicted outlook and notes on any other issues the user should be aware of. The discussion discusses the impacts in the Tropics as well as potential impacts in the Extratropics when relevant.

Product Physical Basis

The product synthesizes information and expert analysis related to climate variability across multiple time scales and from various sources, including operational climate monitoring products. The physical basis for the outlooks include El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) , the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), strength and variations of the monsoon systems, other coherent subseasonal tropical variability such as atmospheric Kelvin waves (KW), Equatorial Rossby waves (ERW), African easterly waves, as well as interactions with the extratropical circulation (i.e. high latitude blocking, low-latitude frontal activity, etc.).

Product Forecast Tools

The outlook maps are currently created subjectively based on a number of forecast tools, many of which are objective. The final depiction is an assessment of these forecast tools based on a number of factors to create the final product. Work is ongoing to create an objective consolidation of some of the available forecast tools to serve as a first guess for the forecaster. Forecast tools include MJO composites, empirical and dynamical based MJO, ERW and KW forecasts, and raw dynamical model guidance from a number of modeling systems. Tropical cyclone areas are based on MJO composites and statistical and dynamical tropical cyclone forecasts as well as raw model forecast guidance.

Product Purpose

The product supports the NOAA mission in three primary ways:

  1. Assess and forecast important changes in the distribution of tropical convection (i.e., potential circulation changes across the Pacific and North America sectors) and communicate this information to NWS forecasters
  2. Provide advance notice of potential hazards related to climate, weather and hydrological events across the global tropics (including tropical cyclone risks for several NWS regions)
  3. Support various sectors of the U.S. economy (finance, energy, agriculture, water resource management) that have foreign interests.

Product Partners

The product is created through collaboration with other NOAA centers, [the National Hurricane Center (NHC) and the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC)], the Department of Defense [The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS)], the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Taiwan Central Weather Bureau, the State University of New York at Albany (SUNY) and the Center for Climate and Satellites (CICS), among other collaborators.

Product Users and Applications

Known users include U.S. government agencies such as NOAA [National Weather Service (NWS), River Forecast Centers (RFCs), the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Department of the Interior (U.S. Forest Service), aid organizations (U.S. and international Red Cross, USAID), domestic and global private sector interests (financial, energy, water resource management and agricultural sectors), international weather services and various media meteorologists.

Some special applications of the product in the past include extended range predictions to support Haiti earthquake and Deepwater Horizon oil spill relief efforts as well as support for the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) scientific field campaign held from October 2011 through March 2012.

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Page Author: CPC Web Team
Page last modified: 9-Jun-2014 3:37 PM EDT
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