CPC: Climate Assessment for 1994 -
Regional Climate Summaries: Indian Summer Monsoon

Precipitation totals for India during the 1994 Indian monsoon season (June - September) averaged near the 60th percentile (Fig. 4.13). These totals were larger than has been observed during each of the past five monsoon seasons and were the second largest values recorded in the past 11 years. Precipitation amounts greater than 1000 mm were recorded throughout central India during May - September, with upwards of 3000 mm observed along the west coast (Fig. 4.14). During the 1994 season, most of central and western India, and central and southern Pakistan, received at least 125% of normal rainfall totals (Fig. 4.15). Exceptionally wet weather dominated the southern two-thirds of Pakistan and western India, where totals more than double typical seasonal amounts were observed. Several flood episodes also affected the monsoon region this year, and by the end of the season nearly 1,000 lives were lost across India and Pakistan due to flooding. Below-normal rainfall was observed only in north-central, extreme northeastern, and southern parts of India during the season (Fig. 4.15).

Selected notable features during the monsoon season are as follows:

Heavy rains inundated areas from West Bengal eastward across Bangladesh and extreme eastern India from April to mid-May. During this period, more than 300 people were killed and more than half a million homes were destroyed in association with torrential rains, and with the movement of Cyclone 02b through southeastern Bangladesh and portions of the Indian subcontinent. The latter half of May brought a decrease in storminess to the region.

Meanwhile, an exceptional heat wave developed from mid-May to mid-June across central and northern India and Pakistan. During this period temperatures in Delhi reached a 50-year high of 46oC, while temperatures in parts of southern Pakistan reached 50oC. This extreme heat claimed over 400 lives in India and an additional 100 lives in Pakistan.

During June and July above-normal rainfall covered western India and Pakistan. These rains helped to recharge reservoirs and improved crop prospects in most areas. Meanwhile, heavy rains across the northern and eastern fringes of India during the first week of July took 60 lives, flooded more than 100 villages, and damaged 52 highways.

Precipitation began to ease across Pakistan and western India in early August, although periodic heavy rains caused localized flooding until the end of the monsoon season in mid-September. In mid-August, flooding across the northern tier of Bangladesh took nearly four dozen lives, marooned 300,000 people, and swamped 10,000 homes.

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