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Climate Diagnostics Bulletin
Climate Diagnostics Bulletin - Home Climate Diagnostics Bulletin - Forecast Climate Diagnostics Bulletin - Extratropics


  Tropical Highlights

  Table of Atmospheric Indices  (Table 1)

  Table of Oceanic Indices  (Table 2)

  Time Series

  Time-Longitude Sections

  Mean & Anomaly Fields

  Appendix 1: Outside Contributions

Tropical Highlights


Forecast Forum

Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies increased across much of the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean during October 2009(Fig. T18).  Consequently, all of the Niņo-region SST indices were above +0.8°C throughout the month, except for the Niņo1+2 index, which dropped to +0.0°C during October (Table T2, Fig. T5). The oceanic thermocline along the equator, measured by the depth of the 20°C isotherm, remained deeper than average across the Pacific Ocean (Figs. T15, T16). Consistent with these conditions, temperatures were 1o-4oC above average at thermocline depth across the equatorial Pacific (Fig. T17).  

Also during October, convection remained suppressed across Indonesia but enhanced over the west-central Pacific (Figs. T25, E3). In addition, low-level westerly and upper-level easterly wind anomalies strengthened over much of the equatorial Pacific (Figs. T20 and T21), and westerly wind bursts were observed across the equatorial Pacific during the month (Fig. T13). This coupling of the oceanic and atmospheric anomalies indicates a strengthening El Niņo.


For the latest status of the ENSO cycle see the ENSO Diagnostic Discussion at:

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