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Climate Diagnostics Bulletin
Climate Diagnostics Bulletin - Home Climate Diagnostics Bulletin - Forecast Climate Diagnostics Bulletin - Extratropics


  Tropical Highlights

  Table of Atmospheric Indices  (Table 1)

  Table of Oceanic Indices  (Table 2)

  Time Series

  Time-Longitude Sections

  Mean & Anomaly Fields

  Appendix 1: Outside Contributions

Tropical Highlights


The pattern of tropical sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies

Tropical Highlights - December 2019



During December 2019, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) were above-average across the western and central equatorial Pacific and near-average in the eastern equatorial Pacific (Fig. T18, Table T2). The latest monthly Niņo indices were +0.3°C for the Niņo 1+2 region, +0.5°C for the Niņo 3.4 region and +1.0°C for the Niņo 4 region (Table T2, Fig. T5). The depth of the oceanic thermocline (measured by the depth of the 20°C isotherm) was above-average across the central and eastern equatorial Pacific (Figs. T15, T16). The corresponding sub-surface temperatures were 1-3°C above average in the eastern equatorial Pacific (Fig. T17).


Also during December, the lower-level easterly winds were weaker than average (indicated by westerly anomalies) across the equatorial Pacific (Table T1, Fig. T20). The upper-level winds were near-average over much of the equatorial Pacific (Table T1, Fig. T21). Meanwhile, tropical convection was enhanced to the west of the Date Line and suppressed over Indonesia and the central equatorial Pacific, just east of the Date Line (Figs. T25, E3). Collectively, these oceanic and atmospheric anomalies were consistent with ENSO-neutral conditions.


For the latest status of the ENSO cycle see the ENSO Diagnostic Discussion at:

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