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Climate Prediction Center

Climate Diagnostics Bulletin
Climate Diagnostics Bulletin - Home Climate Diagnostics Bulletin - Forecast Climate Diagnostics Bulletin - Extratropics


  Tropical Highlights

  Table of Atmospheric Indices  (Table 1)

  Table of Oceanic Indices  (Table 2)

  Time Series

  Time-Longitude Sections

  Mean & Anomaly Fields

  Appendix 1: Outside Contributions

Tropical Highlights

JULY 2019

The pattern of tropical sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies

Tropical Highlights - July 2019



El Niņo ended during July 2019, as below-average sea surface temperatures (SSTs) expanded in the eastern equatorial Pacific and above-average SSTs persisted in the central equatorial Pacific (Fig. T18, Table T2). The latest monthly Niņo indices were -0.3°C for the Niņo 1+2 region, +0.4°C for the Niņo 3.4 region and +0.9°C for the Niņo 4 region (Table T2, Fig. T5). The depth of the oceanic thermocline (measured by the depth of the 20°C isotherm) was slightly above-average in the central equatorial Pacific and below-average in the eastern equatorial Pacific (Figs. T15, T16). The corresponding sub-surface temperatures were 0-1°C above average in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific, and 1-2°C below average in the eastern equatorial Pacific (Fig. T17).


Also during July, both the lower-level easterly winds and upper-level westerly winds were weaker-than-average across much of the equatorial Pacific (Table T1, Fig. T20, Fig. T21). Meanwhile, tropical convection was suppressed across Indonesia and the western Pacific, and near average over the central Pacific (Figs. T25, E3). Collectively, these mixed oceanic and atmospheric anomalies reflected a transition from El Niņo to ENSO-neutral.


For the latest status of the ENSO cycle see the ENSO Diagnostic Discussion at:

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