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Official 90-day Outlooks are issued once each month near mid-month at 8:30am Eastern Time. Please consult the schedule of 30 & 90-day outlooks for exact release dates.

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HOME> Outlook Maps>Seasonal Forecast Discussion
Prognostic Discussion for Monthly Outlook 
NWS Climate Prediction Center College Park MD
300 PM EDT Wed May 31 2023


The updated June temperature and precipitation outlooks are based on the latest
dynamical models, WPC temperature and precipitation forecasts during the first
week of the month, the CPC 6-10/8-14 day temperature and precipitation
outlooks, and the week 3-4 dynamical models (valid June 14-27). Sea surface
temperature (SST) anomalies and soil moisture conditions were used for the
temperature outlook. The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) eastward propagation
recently slowed as its enhanced phase entered the Western Hemisphere. The MJO
is expected to provide a favorable large-scale environment for tropical cyclone
(TC) development across the East Pacific during early June. The National
Hurricane Center is currently monitoring a trough of low pressure over the Gulf
of Mexico. Regardless of development, this disturbance could result in heavy
precipitation across the Florida Peninsula at the beginning of June. Later in
the month, large uncertainty exists on the MJO evolution and its related
influences as a transition to El Niño is well underway.

Typhoon Mawar, currently located to the east of Taiwan, is forecast to recurve
northeastward over the Northwest Pacific. This predicted model track of the
extratropical low pressure system is likely to contribute to an amplified
500-hPa trough (ridge) over the Aleutians (western North America) during early
to mid-June. This predicted longwave pattern along with the latest model
guidance favors below-normal temperatures across the Aleutians and Alaska
Peninsula with above-normal temperatures more likely for southeastern Alaska
and northern Mainland Alaska. Dynamical models generally depict a persistent,
anomalous 500-hPa ridge over the higher latitudes of west-central North America
into the latter half of June which supports increased probabilities for
above-normal temperatures from the Pacific Northwest and Northern Rockies east
to the Midwest. The largest probabilities (more than 60 percent) of
above-normal temperatures are forecast across parts of the Pacific Northwest,
North Dakota, and Minnesota where guidance favors above-normal temperatures
throughout the month. 30-day precipitation deficits range from 2 to 5 inches
across the Corn Belt where low topsoil is present. This low soil moisture is
another factor supporting above-normal temperatures for this region. Although
near to below-normal temperatures are forecast across the Northeast during
early to mid-June, building heat upstream over west-central Canada is expected
to eventually spread eastward with time, which is consistent with the week 3-4
dynamical models. Therefore, the updated June outlook leans towards
above-normal temperatures for much of this region. Equal chances (EC) of below,
near, or above-normal temperatures are forecast for areas of New England where
the signal for relatively cool temperatures is strongest early in the month.
Positive SST anomalies over the Gulf of Mexico along with forecasted above
normal temperatures in week 3-4 tools, tilts the forecast toward above normal
across Florida and along the Gulf Coast.

Based on the likelihood of below-normal temperatures associated with an early
month southern stream trough and support from the week 3-4 European Centre for
Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) and Climate Forecast System (CFS) models,
increased probabilities for below-normal temperatures are forecast for the
Central to Southern High Plains, Southwest, and southern California. During the
past 30 days, more than 5 inches of precipitation occurred in northeast
Colorado and the Texas Panhandle which has led to moist topsoil and further
supports cooler-than-normal temperatures for these areas. The lowest forecast
confidence in the temperature outlook exists across much of the interior
Southeast due to uncertainty on the amplitude and placement of a 500-hPa trough
near the East Coast during the second week of June. The ECMWF and Canadian
ensemble means are less amplified with this trough and provide a warmer outcome
for these areas, compared to the GEFS. Given these diverging model solutions
early in the month, EC are forecast for a majority of the Southeast.

A predicted anomalous 500-hPa ridge upstream over western to central Canada
throughout much of June and little to no precipitation during the first week of
the month favors below-normal precipitation across the Midwest. This favored
dryness extends east to the Central Appalachians, based in part on WPC’s 7-day
forecast. Through at least mid-June, model solutions remain consistent that
shortwave troughs are likely to undercut the high-latitude ridging over
west-central Canada, favoring wetter-than-normal conditions especially across
the interior West, High Plains, and Southern Great Plains where increased
probabilities for above-normal precipitation are forecast for the month. Daily
CFS model runs, dating back to mid-May, have been very consistent with this wet
signal during June. A wet start to the month is likely across the Florida
Peninsula as a trough of low pressure shifts east from the Gulf of Mexico.
Based on predicted heavy precipitation at the beginning of June and the lack of
a dry signal among tools at later time scales, elevated probabilities for
above-normal precipitation are forecast across the Florida Peninsula. The
largest change in the revised precipitation outlook was made to Alaska as most
recent model guidance has backed off the dry signal initially forecast for
southeastern Alaska. A slight lean towards below-normal precipitation is
maintained for interior eastern Alaska due to the nearby anomalous 500-hPa
ridge. Conversely, an amplified 500-hPa trough early in the month favors
above-normal precipitation across the Aleutians and Alaska Peninsula.

********** Previous discussion, released on May 18, is below **********

The June 2023 temperature and precipitation outlooks are based on the Climate
Forecast System Model version 2 (CFSv2), North American Multi-Model Ensemble
(NMME) and Copernicus model (C3S) suites for June, the week 3-4 model
solutions, statistical tools, and soil moisture conditions. The Madden-Julian
Oscillation (MJO) remains active with its enhanced phase over the west-central
Pacific. The MJO influence on the mid-latitude circulation pattern and
associated temperatures diminishes by late spring. However, it can modulate
tropical cyclone (TC) development across the East Pacific and Atlantic basins.
If the MJO continues to propagate eastward over the Western Hemisphere through
late May into early June, that would provide a favorable large-scale
environment for the genesis of an early season TC in the western Caribbean Sea.
This was a factor in the June precipitation outlook for the Southeast. Since a
transition from El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-neutral to El Niño is
likely during the next couple of months, El Niño temperature and precipitation
composites during May-June-July were also considered.

A strong omega block has persisted over or in the vicinity of North America
since late April. Model solutions depict a weakening of this blocking pattern
during late May which lowers forecast confidence heading into June. During late
May and early June, the Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) and European
Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) ensemble means maintain
positive 500-hPa height anomalies over Alaska and the northern two-thirds of
the contiguous U.S. (CONUS) with near to below normal heights across the
southern tier. The prominent area of positive 500-hPa height anomalies at the
middle to high latitudes of North America would favor a warm start to June
throughout the northern CONUS. This likely warm start to June along with
monthly dynamical and statistical tools support increased probabilities for
above-normal temperatures from the Pacific Northwest east to the Northern Great
Plains. This favored area of above-normal temperatures extends southward to the
Central Great Plains and Middle Mississippi Valley where low soil moisture
conditions are likely to warm surface temperatures. The week 3-4 GEFS and ECMWF
models, C3S model, and recent daily CFSv2 model runs for June support to
increased probabilities for above-normal temperatures across parts of the
Northeast. Based on the NMME, C3S, and decadal trends , above-normal
temperatures are favored for parts of the Southwest, Rio Grande Valley, Gulf
Coast, and Florida. Increased probabilities for above-normal temperatures are
forecast for nearly all of Alaska, consistent with dynamical and statistical
tools. The one exception is the western coast of Alaska due to below-normal SST
anomalies across the eastern Bering Sea.

The week 3-4 GEFS and ECMWF, valid during early to mid-June, are in good
agreement for elevated probabilities of above-normal precipitation across
portions of the High Plains, Central Rockies, and Great Basin. This wet signal
is also present in the monthly NMME and consistent among daily CFSv2 model runs
for June. Therefore, above-normal precipitation is favored for those areas
during June. The NMME along with an increased potential for an early season TC
to emerge from the western Caribbean Sea favors above-normal precipitation for
parts of the Southeast. Based on the NMME and El Niño precipitation composites,
elevated probabilities for below-normal precipitation are forecast for
southeastern Alaska and parts of the Pacific Northwest. A large area of EC was
necessary in the June precipitation outlook due to weak or conflicting signals
among the guidance and lower predictability associated with convective rainfall
during the late spring and early summer. This large coverage of EC will be
reevaluated with the updated June outlook, released on May 31.


The climatic normals are based on conditions between 1991 and 2020, following
the World Meteorological Organization convention of using the most recent 3
complete decades as the climate reference period.  The probability anomalies
for temperature and precipitation based on these new normals better represent
shorter term climatic anomalies than the forecasts based on older normals.

The next monthly outlook...for Jul ... will be issued on Thu Jun 15 2023

These outlooks are based on departures from the 1991-2020 base period.

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