The canonical correlation analysis (CCA) forecast of
SST in the central Pacific (Barnett et al. 1988, Science, 241,
192‑196; Barnston and Ropelewski
1992, J. Climate, 5, 1316‑1345), is shown in Figs. F1
and F2. This forecast is produced routinely by the Prediction Branch of the
Climate Prediction Center. The predictions from the
National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Coupled Forecast System
Model (CFS03) are presented in Figs. F3 and F4a, F4b. Predictions from the Markov model (Xue, et al. 2000: J. Climate, 13, 849‑871)
are shown in Figs. F5 and F6.
Predictions from the latest version of the LDEO model (Chen et al. 2000:
Geophys. Res. Let., 27, 2585‑2587)
are shown in Figs. F7 and F8.
Predictions using linear inverse modeling (Penland
and Magorian 1993: J. Climate, 6, 1067‑1076)
are shown in Figs. F9 and F10. Predictions from the ENSO‑CLIPER
statistical model (Knaff and Landsea 1997, Wea. Forecasting, 12, 633‑652)
are shown in Fig. F11. Niño 3.4
predictions are summarized in Fig. F12, provided by the Forecasting and
Prediction Research Group of the IRI.
The CPC and the contributors to the Forecast Forum caution
potential users of this predictive information that they can expect only modest
ENSO Alert System Status: La Niña Advisory
is a ~60% chance of a transition from La Niña to ENSO-Neutral during the
Northern Hemisphere spring 2021 (April-June).
Niña persisted in January, reflected by below-average sea surface temperatures
(SST) anomalies extending from the western to east-central Pacific Ocean (Fig. T18). For the month, the westernmost Niño indices
were -1.1ºC in Niño-3.4 and -1.2ºC in Niño-4 (Table T2). Negative anomalies were not as strong in the
eastern regions with index values of -0.7ºC in Niño-3 and -0.8ºC in Niño-1+2. The below-average SSTs were supported by
negative subsurface temperature anomalies, which extended from the surface to
at least ~150m below the surface between 160°E and 130°W (Fig. T17). Low-level wind anomalies remained easterly
from the western to east-central (~140°W) tropical Pacific, with the largest
amplitude near the Date Line (Fig. T20).
Upper-level wind anomalies were westerly across most of the tropical
Pacific (Fig. T21).
Tropical convection continued to be suppressed over the western and
central Pacific and enhanced around the Philippines and Indonesia (Fig. T25),
while both the Southern Oscillation and Equatorial Southern Oscillation
remained positive (Table T1 & Fig. T2).
Overall, the coupled ocean-atmosphere system remains consistent with La
of the models in the IRI/CPC plume predict a transition to ENSO-neutral during
the Northern Hemisphere spring 2021 (Figs.
F1-F12). The forecaster consensus is
in agreement with this transition and then predicts a continuation of
ENSO-neutral at least through the Northern Hemisphere summer. In part, due to the inherent uncertainty in
predictions made at this time of year, the forecast for the fall remains split
(~50%) between La Niña and the combination of the other two possibilities (El
Niño and Neutral). In summary, there is a ~60% chance of a transition from
La Niña to ENSO-Neutral during the Northern Hemisphere spring 2021 (April-June).
updates of oceanic and atmospheric conditions are available on the Climate
Prediction Center homepage (El
Niño/La Niña Current Conditions and Expert Discussions).